Azerbaijan

Republic of Azerbaijan - A transcontinental country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia, situated at the crossroads of Southwest Asia and Southeastern Europe. It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, while having an 8 km border with Turkey in the north west.

Total Area: 86 600 km2

Population: 9,754,830 (2016 estimate)

Official languages: Azerbaijani

Capital: Baku

 

Climate

The climate of Azerbaijan is very diverse. 9 out of 13 existing climate zones are present in Azerbaijan.

The temperature regime and its distribution throughout Azerbaijan is regular, and depends on the features of air masses entering the country, the regional landscape, and proximity to the Caspian Sea. The sea causes temperatures in the maritime areas (20 kilometres or 12 miles away from the sea) to decline in the summer and rise in the winter. At the same time, the sea moderates the influence of hot and dry air masses coming from Central Asia. The average annual temperature is 14–15 °C (57–59 °F) in the Kur-Araz Lowland, the coastal regions south to the Apsheron Peninsula, and in the Lenkoran Lowland. The temperature declines with proximity to the mountains, averaging 5–6 °C at an altitude of 2,000 meters (6,600 ft), and 12–13 °C at 3,000 meters (9,800 ft).

 

Religion

Around 95% of the population are Muslim. Azerbaijan is a secular state and ensures religious freedom.

Historical monuments

The Azokh Cave - is a six-cave complex known as a living site of stone-age man. It lies near to the village of Azokh in Nagorno-Karabakh. The cave is considered to be the site of one of the most ancient proto-human habitations in Eurasia. A Neanderthal-style jaw bone found in 1968 is thought to be over 300,000 years old and thus one of the oldest proto-human remains found in this part of the world. Its discovery gave rise to the term Azykh Man.

The Palace of Shaki Khans - in Shaki, Azerbaijan was a summer residence of Shaki Khans. It was built in 1797 by Muhammed Hasan Khan. The exterior was decorated with dark blue, turquoise and ochre tiles in geometric patterns and the murals were coloured with tempera and were inspired by the works of Nizami Ganjavi.Measuring thirty-two meters by eight and a half meters on the exterior, the summer residence is a two-story masonry structure elongated on the north-south axis and covered with a wooden hipped roof with long eaves. The layout of both floors is identical; three rectangular rooms are placed in a row, separated by narrow, south-facing iwans that provide access to the rooms. The floors are accessed separately to accommodate their public and private functions. Entered from the south through the two iwans, the ground floor was used primarily by clerks and petitioners. Two stairways attached to the northern façade gave access to the first floor, which was reserved for the khan's family and their guests.

The Palace of the Shirvanshahs  - is a 15th-century palace built by the Shirvanshahs and described by UNESCO as "one of the pearls of Azerbaijan's architecture. The complex contains the main building of the palace, Divanhane, the burial-vaults, the shah's mosque with a minaret, Seyid Yahya Bakuvi's mausoleum, a portal in the east, Murad's gate, a reservoir and the remnants of a bath house.

The Maiden Tower  - also known locally as Giz Galasi, located in the Old City, Baku, in Azerbaijan, was built in the 12th century as part of the walled city. Together with the Shirvanshahs' Palace, dated to the 15th century, it forms an ensemble of historic monuments inscribed in 2001 under the UNESCO World Heritage List of Historical Monuments as cultural property, Category III.

The Maiden Tower houses a museum, which presents the story of historic evolution of the Baku city. It also has a gift shop. The view from the roof takes in the alleys and minarets of the Old City, the Baku Boulevard, the De Gaulle house and a wide vista of the Baku Bay. In recent years, the brazier on the top has been lit during the nights of the Novruz festival.

The Baku Ateshgah  - often called the "Fire Temple of Baku" is a castle-like religious temple in Surakhani, a suburb in Baku, Azerbaijan. The Baku Ateshgah was a pilgrimage and philosophical centre of Zoroastrians from Northwestern Indian Subcontinent, who were involved in trade with the Caspian area via the famous "Grand Trunk Road". The four holy elements of their belief were: ateshi (fire), badi (air), abi (water), and heki (earth). The temple ceased to be a place of worship after 1883 with the installation of petroleum plants (industry) at Surakhany. The complex was turned into a museum in 1975. The annual number of visitors to the museum is 15,000.

Gobustan National Park - officially Gobustan Rock Art Cultural Landscape, is a hill and mountain site occupying the southeast end of the Greater Caucasus mountain ridge in Azerbaijan. Gobustan is very rich in archaeological monuments. The reserve has more than 6,000 rock engravings dating back between 5,000–40,000 years. The site also features the remains of inhabited caves, settlements and burials, all reflecting an intensive human use by the inhabitants of the area during the wet period that followed the last Ice Age, from the Upper Paleolithic to the Middle Ages. The site, which covers an area of 537 ha, is part of the larger protected Gobustan Reservation. Most of the rock engravings depict primitive men, animals, battle-pieces, ritual dances, bullfights, boats with armed oarsmen, warriors with lances in their hands, camel caravans, pictures of sun and stars.

 

Palace of Special Treatment

Duzdag Therapy Center

Altitude of 1,173 meters above sea level Duzda─č Cave asthma therapy is based Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan. 14 km from the center of the city of Nakhichevan.

Spleoterapi - lung, effective treatment modality for the treatment of bronchial system. Spleoterapinin also worth noting, however, some have a direct and adverse effects. These effects are as follows:

  • Predastma
  • Bronchial asthma 1 phase-infectious-allergic and atopic kind, mild, moderate and severe degree of
  • Chronic obstructive (blockage causes), bronchitis and chronic pneumonia (pneumonia, lung infections) -1. and 2 stage of remission (relief) basis. Chronic bronchitis, asthma on the basis of combination-remission.
  • Allergic sinus, chronic allergic rinosinüsopatiler.
  • Pollinoz
  • Bronchitis, Asthma-dial 1 and 2 stage and a stage heart difficulty breathing

Naftalan Therapy

Naftalan oil is unsurpassed unique factor in the medical world. Naphthalan - is a thick liquid consistency of black-and- brown color with a distinctive smell. Naftalan has a direct and adverse effects. These effects are as follows:

  • Diseases of the joints and periarticular soft tissues of the musculo - skeletal system .
  • Skin diseases
  • Urologic disease
  • Gynecological Diseases
  • Diseases of the ear , nose and throat
  • Diseases of the Nervous System
  • Diseases of the peripheral veins